PART I. THE BASICS OF ETHICAL ARGUMENT
Clarifying Your Position
Persuasion and Public Policy
Recap: Reasons for Arguing about Ethics
2. Materials: Theories in Ethics
What Is Ethical Theory?
Deontology and Consistency
Deontology and Special Obligations
Deontology and Supererogation
Deontology and Rational Justification
Deontology and Conflicting Duties and Obligations
Deontology and Indifference to Consequences
Act Utilitarianism and Benevolence
Act Utilitarianism and Rationality
Act Utilitarianism and Situational Decision-Making
Act Utilitarianism and Predicting the Future
Act Utilitarianism and Incommensurability
Act Utilitarianism and Special Obligations
Act Utilitarianism and Supererogation
Act Utilitarianism and Inconsistency
Act Utilitarianism and Injustice
Some Strengths of Rule Utilitarianism
Some Weaknesses of Rule Utilitarianism
Rights and Deontology
Rights and Act Utilitarianism
Rights and Rule Utilitarianism
Ethical Theories in Combination
Recap: Pluses and Minuses
3. More Materials: Principles in Ethics
What Is an Ethical Principle?
Respect for Autonomy
Conflicts of Principle
Recap: Principles in Outline
The Role of Intuition
The Use of Examples
Argument by Analogy
The Joys of Compromise
Recap: On Being Persuasive
PART II. THE BASIC ISSUES OF BIOETHICS
N.B. Each chapter in Part Two begins with an Introduction and ends with Study Questions and a discussion of Related Cases in Crigger, Cases in Bioethics, Third Edition.
5. Professional Responsibility and the Rights of Patients
Telling the Truth
Knowledge and Autonomy
Paternalism and Beneficence; Lipkin's Argument, "On Lying to Patients"
Responding to Lipkin
Recap: Full Disclosure
The Importance of Informed Consent
Informing the Patient
The Patient's Consent
Patients Who Cannot Consent
Recap: Getting the Go-ahead
Modern Complexities: Siegler's Argument, "Confidentiality in Medicine"
Responding to Siegler
Harm to Others
Recap: Keeping Secrets
6. Reproductive Rights and Abortion
Recap: The Ethics of New Technologies
The Sanctity of Life
The Status of the Fetus
Opposing Abortion: Marquis's Argument, "Why Abortion is Immoral"
Responding to Marquis
The Interests of the Woman
Defending Abortion: Thompson's Argument, "A Defense of Abortion"
Responding to Thompson
Recap: The Abortion Debate
7. Death and Dying
What Is Death?
The Official Definition: The Argument of the President's Commission
Responding to the Commission
The Traditional Conception
Recap: Defining Death
Voluntary Euthanasia and Suicide
Nonvoluntary Euthanasia and Murder
Killing and Letting Die: Rachels's Argument,
"Active and Passive Euthanasia"
Responding to Rachels
The Doctrine of Double Effect
Recap: Mercy Killing
8. Research with Living Subjects
Selecting Human Research Subjects
Unethical Experiments: Ridley's Argument, "Ill-Gotten Gains"
Responding to Ridley
Animal Research: Regan's Argument, "The Case Against Animal Research"
Responding to Regan
9. Mental Incompetence
The Nature of Mental Incompetence
Incompetent at What?
A Conspiracy Theory: Szasz's Argument,
"The Myth of Mental Illness"
Responding to Szasz
Incompetence and Autonomy
Recap: On Counting as Competent
Decisions About Treatment
Treating People Against Their Will: Chodoff's Argument, "The Case for Involuntary Hospitalization of the Mentally Ill"
Responding to Chodoff
Paternalism and Beneficence
Recap: Helping the Helpless
10. Allocation and Health Care Policy
Allocating Scarce Resources
Health and Wealth
Care According to Need: Nielsen's Argument, "Autonomy, Equality, and a Just Health Care System"
Responding to Nielsen
Recap: Fair Shares
Organ Procurement and Transplantation
Organs for Sale
You Stole My Heart Away
Gene Therapy and Genetic Engineering
Avoiding People: Purdy's Argument, "Genetic Diseases: Can Having Children Be Immoral?"
Responding to Purdy
Curing People: Somatic-Cell Therapy
Changing People: Germ-Line Therapy
Recap: A Better World?