Fifth Edition   ©2012

Environmental Chemistry

Colin Baird (University of Western Ontario) , Michael Cann (University of Scranton)

  • ISBN-10: 1-4292-7704-1; ISBN-13: 978-1-4292-7704-4

Part I: Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution
Chapter 1: Stratospheric Chemistry: The Ozone Layer
The Physics, Chemistry and Biology of UV
Stratospheric Chemistry: The Ozone Layer
Catalytic Processes of Ozone Destruction
Box 1-1: The Rates of Free-Radical Reactions
Box 1-2: Calculating the Rates of Reaction Steps
Box 1-3: The Steady-State Analysis of Atmospheric Reactions

Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 2: The Ozone Holes
The Ozone Hole and Mid-Latitude Ozone Depletion
The Chemistry of Ozone Depletion
Polar Ozone Holes
Box 2-1: The Chemistry Behind Mid-Latitude Decreases in Stratospheric Ozone
The Chemicals That Cause Ozone Destruction
Green Chemistry: The Replacement of CFC and Hydrocarbon Blowing Agents with Carbon
Dioxide in Producing Foam Polystyrene
Green Chemistry: Harpin Technology—Eliciting Nature’s Own Defenses Against Diseases
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 3: The Chemistry of Ground-Level Air Pollution
Box 3-1: The Interconversion of Gas Concentrations
Urban Ozone: The Photochemical Smog Process
Improving Air Quality: Photochemical Smog
Green Chemistry: Strategies to Reduce VOCs Emanating from Organic Solvents
Green Chemistry: A Nonvolatile, Reactive Coalescent for the Reduction of VOCs in Latex
Green Chemistry: The Replacement of Organic Solvents with Supercritical and Liquid Carbon
Dioxide; Development of Surfactants for This Compound
Box 3-2: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Pressure
Green Chemistry: Using Ionic Liquids to Replace Organic Solvents: Cellulose, a Naturally
Occurring Polymer Replacement for Petroleum-Derived Polymers
Improving Air Quality: Sulfur-based Emissions
Particulates in Air Pollution
Air Quality Indices and Size Characteristics for Particulate Matter
Box 3-3: The Distribution of Particle Sizes in an Urban Air Sample
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 4: The Environmental and Health Consequences of Polluted Air – Outdoors and Indoors
Acid Rain
The Human Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollutants
Indoor Air Pollution
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Part II: The Greenhouse Effect, Climate Change, Fossil Fuels and CO2
Chapter 5: The Greenhouse Effect
The Mechanism of the Greenhouse Effect
Molecular Vibrations: Energy Absorption by Greenhouse Gases
The Major Greenhouse Gases
Other Greenhouse Gases
Box 5-2: Determining the Emissions of “Old Carbon” Sources of Methane
The Climate-Modifying Effects of Aerosols
Box 5-3: Cooling over China from Haze
Global Warming to Date
Geoengineering Earth’s Climate to Combat Global Warming
Atmospheric Residence Time Analysis
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 6: Energy Use, Fossil Fuels, CO2 Emissions, and Global Climate Change
Global Energy Usage
Fossil Fuels
Box 6-1: Shale Gas
Box 6-2: Petroleum Refining: Fractional Distillation
Box 6-3: The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Disaster
Green Chemistry: Polylactic Acid—The Production of Biodegradable Polymers from Renewable
Resources; Reducing the Need for Petroleum and the Impact on the Environment
Sequestration of CO2
The Storage of Carbon Dioxide
Other Schemes to Reduce Greenhouse Gases
Box 6-4: Removing CO2 from the Atmosphere: Direct Air Capture
Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Future
The Extent and Potential Consequences of Future Global Warming
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 7: Biofuels and Other Alternative Fuels
Biomass and Biofuels: Issues
Biodiesel from Plant Oils and from Algae
Green Chemistry: Bio-based Liquid Fuels and Chemicals
Green Chemistry: Recycling Carbon Dioxide—A Feedstock for the Production of Chemicals and
Liquid Fuels
Thermochemical Production of Fuels, Including Methanol
Hydrogen—Fuel of the Future?
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 8: Renewable Energy Technologies: Hydroelectric, Wind, Solar, Geothermal, and Marine Energy and Their Storage
Hydroelectric Power
Wind Energy
Marine Energy: Wave and Tidal Power
Geothermal Energy
Direct Solar Energy
The Storage of Renewable Energy—Electricity and Heat
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 9: Radioactivity, Radon, and Nuclear Energy
Radioactivity and Radon Gas
Box 9-1: Steady-State Analysis of the Radioactive Decay Series
Nuclear Energy
Environmental Problems of Uranium Fuel
Box 9-2: Radioactive Contamination by Plutonium Production
Accidents and the Future of Nuclear Power
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Part III: Water Chemistry and Water Pollution
Chapter 10: The Chemistry of Natural Waters
Oxidation - Reduction Chemistry in Natural Waters
Green Chemistry: Enzymatic preparation of cotton textiles
Acid – Base and Solubility Chemistry in Natural Waters: The Carbonate System
Box 10-1: Derivation of the Equations for Species Diagram Curves
Box 10-2: Solubility of CaCO3 in Buffered Solutions

Ion Concentrations in Natural Waters and Drinking Water
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 11: The Pollution and Purification of Water
Water Disinfection
Box 11-1: Activated Carbon
Box 11-2: The Desalination of Salty Water
Box 11-3: The Mechanism of Chloroform Production in Drinking Water

Groundwater: Its Supply, Chemical Contamination, and Remediation
The Chemical Contamination and Treatment of Wastewater and Sewage
Box 11-4: Organic Compounds Commonly Found in U.S. Groundwater-based Community Water Supplies and Their Properties
Green Chemistry: Sodium iminodisuccinate – A  Biodegradable Chelating Agent
Modern Wastewater and Air Purification Techniques
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Part IV: Toxic Organic Compounds
Chapter 12: Toxic Heavy Metals
Green Chemistry: Replacement of Lead in Electrodeposition Coatings
Box 12-1: Organotin Compounds
Green Chemistry: Removing the Arsenic and Chromium from Pressure Treated Wood
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 13: Pesticides
The Accumulation of Organochlorines in Biological Systems
Principles of Toxicology
Organophosphate and Carbamate Insecticides
Natural and Green Insecticides, and Integrated Pest Management
Green Chemistry: Insecticides that Target Only Certain Insects
Green Chemistry: A New Method for Controlling Termites
Green Chemistry: Spinetoram, an Improvement on a Green Pesticide
Box 13-1: Genetically Engineered Plants
Final Thoughts on Pesticides
Box 13-2: The Environmental Distribution of Pollutants
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 14: Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs
Box 14-1: Deducing the Probable Chlorophenolic Origins of a Dioxin
Box 14-2: Predicting the Furans that Will Form From a Given PCB
Other Sources of Dioxins and Furans
Green Chemistry: H2O2, an Environmentally Benign Bleaching Agent for the Production of
The Health Effects of Dioxins, Furans, and PCBs
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Chapter 15: Other Toxic Organic Compounds of Environmental Concern
Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)
Box 15-1: More on the Mechanism of PAH Carcinogenesis
Environmental Estrogens
Box 15-2: Bisphenol-A
The Long-Range Transport of Atmospheric Pollutants
Fire Retardants
Perfluorinated Sulfonates and Related Compounds
Review Questions
Additional Problems
Part V: Environment and the Solid State
Chapter 16: Wastes, Soils and Sediments
Domestic/Commercial Garbage: Its Disposal and Minimization
The Recycling of Household and Commercial Waste
Green Chemistry: Development of Bio-based Toners
Green Chemistry: Development of Recyclable Carpeting
Soils and Sediments
Hazardous Wastes
Review Questions
Green Chemistry Questions
Additional Problems
Part VI: Advanced Atmospheric Chemistry
Chapter 17: The Detailed Free-Radical Chemistry of the Atmosphere
Box 17-1: Lewis Structures of Simple Free Radicals
Tropospheric Chemistry
Systematics of Stratospheric Chemistry
Review Questions
Additional Problems